Fiber-Packed Pectin Helps Treat High Cholesterol & Diabetes

Pectin - Dr. Axe

Pectin is a carbohydrate that’s extracted from fruits, vegetables and seeds. The main use for pectin is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food. It’s sold commercially as a white- to light-brown powder that is extracted from citrus fruits. Companies commonly use pectin in food as a gelling agent, particularly in jams and jellies. Pectin is also used in fillings, medicines, laxatives, throat lozenges, sweets, fruit juices, milk drinks and as a source of dietary fiber.

Nutrition-rich pears, apples, guavas, quince, plums, oranges and other citrus fruits contain large amounts of pectin, while soft fruits like cherries and strawberries contain small amounts of pectin. Because pectin is a high source of fiber, it’s commonly used in a high-fiber diet to treat constipation and digestive issues. It’s also known to naturally lower cholesterol, fight diabetes and support weight loss.


Pectin Nutrition Facts

Pectin is a natural fiber found in most plants. Apples and oranges, for example, are particularly high in pectin, with the highest concentrations in the skins, cores and seeds. You can extract pectin from fruits, or you can purchase a dry mix of pectin at your local health food store.

One package of an unsweetened, dry mix of pectin has about:

  • 163 calories
  • zero grams fat
  • zero milligrams cholesterol
  • 100 milligrams sodium
  • 45 grams carbohydrates
  • 4 grams dietary fiber
  • 0.2 milligrams copper (11 percent DV)
  • 0.2 milligrams zinc (2 percent DV)
  • 0.01 milligrams manganese (2 percent DV)

 

Guide to pectin - Dr. Axe

 


5 Pectin Benefits

1. High Source of Fiber

Pectin fiber is more than just a regulator — it’s a benefit-rich fiber that’s water-soluble and helps lower cholesterol and increases digestive health. As a soluble fiber, pectin works by binding to fatty substances in the digestive tract, including cholesterol and toxins, and promotes their elimination. This means that pectin benefits the body’s detoxifying capabilities, helps regulate the body’s use of sugars and cholesterol, and improves gut and digestive health.

A 2014 study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry found that pectin reduced the extent of lipid digestion, which was attributed to its binding interactions with specific gastrointestinal components. Lipid digestion is when large fat droplets are broken down into smaller droplets. This makes it easier for the fat-digesting enzyme, called pancreatic lipase, to digest. This helps your body break down fats into fatty acids.

A 1994 study published in The Journal of Nutrition found that rats that were fed diets containing pectin had lower LDL and liver cholesterol concentrations than the control group after a 28-day pectin-supplemented diet.

2. Lowers Cholesterol

Pectin is a water-soluble fiber that can bind cholesterol in the gut, thereby preventing its absorption into the bloodstream. Research suggests that the proper dose for high cholesterol is 15 grams of pectin per day. Pectin can be consumed directly from high-fiber foods like fruits, vegetables and seeds; plus, these healthy foods are known to lower cholesterol because of their overall fiber content.

A 1998 study published in the Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry suggests that pectin ingestion results in a decrease of cholesterol levels in liver and serum as well as an increase in waste matter. The study involved normal rats that were fed a diet containing 2.5 percent or 5 percent apple or orange pectin, or no pectin, which was the control group, for three weeks.

Cholesterol concentrations were determined in waste (stool) after one, two and three weeks of treatment and in liver and serum at the end of the experimental trials. Cholesterol concentration in waste matter showed a significant increase by week three in rats fed 5 percent orange or apple pectin. Hepatic cholesterol concentration declined significantly in all pectin-fed groups.

Another study conducted at the University of Florida College of Medicine found that a grapefruit pectin-supplemented diet, without change in lifestyle, can significantly reduce plasma cholesterol. The study lasted for 16 weeks, and it involved 27 human volunteers who were screened to be at medium to high risk for coronary heart disease due to hypercholesterolemia. The study did not interfere with the participants’ current diets or lifestyles. Grapefruit pectin supplementation decreased plasma cholesterol by 7.6 percent and LDL cholesterol by 10.8 percent.

3. Controls Diarrhea

Pectin increases viscosity and volume of stool; therefore, it’s commonly used for natural relief of constipation and diarrhea. A 2001 study conducted at the Centre for Health and Population Research in Bangladesh evaluated the beneficial intestinal effects of dietary fibers from green banana or pectin in children with persistent diarrhea.

In the study, 62 boys, age 5–12 months, were randomly given a rice-based diet containing either cooked green banana, pectin or the rice diet alone. After seven days, stool weight and consistency, frequency of vomiting and purging, and duration of illness were measured. By day three post-treatment, significantly more children recovered from diarrhea receiving pectin or bananas than controls, and by day four, these proportions continued to increase.

The results indicate that green banana and pectin significantly reduce amounts of stool, oral rehydration solution, intravenous fluid, frequency of vomiting and diarrheal duration — and that pectin is an important step to take for treating diarrhea.

4. Treats Diabetes

Pectin is known to slow down the activity of enzymes that break down starches and sugar. The absorption of carbohydrates and sugars is slowed down because of pectin’s fiber content; this helps prevent blood sugar spikes, which cause glucose intolerance, weight gain and diabetes.

A 1988 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition evaluated the effects of pectin ingestion on 12 non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients. The participants were tested for their gastric emptying, glucose tolerance and hormone responses after being placed on a 2,400-calorie, low-fiber diet for two weeks, followed by four weeks of an added supplement with 20 grams of apple pectin.

The results suggest that sustained pectin ingestion slows the gastric-emptying rate and improves glucose tolerance, making pectin a viable natural treatment for diabetes.

5. Aids Weight Loss

Pectin is a water-soluble complex carbohydrate that serves as a fat-burning food. Because the consistency is gum-like or gel-like, when you eat fresh fruits or veggies with pectin, the cells absorb it instead of the fat. Pectin also helps you feel full longer; that satiated feeling means you’ll chow down less throughout the day.

A 2014 study conducted at Wageningen University in the Netherlands evaluated the effects of pectin supplements on 29 participants. The results suggest that gelled pectin, in particular, was able to reduce appetite, increase energy and lower insulin responses.

A 1997 study published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition tested the hypothesis that pectin increases satiety for 49 male and 25 female U.S. Army employees within normal weight limits. On days one and two of the study, the participants fasted overnight and were then given orange juice followed by ice cream four hours later.

Satiety was measured on a visual analog scale before and after orange juice and then again after ice cream. When orange pectin was added to the orange juice, the participants felt more satisfied for up to four hours. They also reported feeling more satisfied for up to 60 minutes after a meal with ice cream.

This suggests that pectin, in doses as small as five grams mixed with orange juice, increases satiety and can aid in a program to lose weight fast by limiting food intake.


History & Interesting Facts

Since the 18th century, jams and jellies have been made with gelling pectin — particularly apple, currant and quince jams. The jell substance was first isolated in 1820 when it was discovered as a key element of jams and jellies. After its discovery, pectin-rich fruits were added to fruits with less pectin, like strawberries and gooseberries, in order to speed up the jam-making process.

The colonists in New England commonly made their own pectin by extracting it from apple peelings. Years later, during the Industrialization Age, the makers of fruit preserves soon turned to producers of apple juice to obtain dried apple pomace that was cooked to extract pectin.

By the 1920s and 1930s, factories were built to commercially extract pectin from crushed dried apple and citrus-peel. At this time, pectin was sold as a liquid extract, but it’s now most often used as dried powder because it’s easier than a liquid to store and handle.


How to Use & Extract Pectin

Pectin is available as an extract and powder at most grocery and health food stores. Also, keep in mind that all fruits are made up of at least 5 percent to 10 percent pectin. Nutrition-packed apples, peaches, oranges, blackberries, grapes, grapefruit and apricots contain the highest amount of pectin among fruits. Carrots, tomatoes, potatoes and peas are also high in pectin.

Just by eating these healthy and delicious foods, you reap the benefits of pectin; you can also add pectin, either a dry mix or pectin extracted from fruit, to jams and preserves to prepare them quickly. In fact, by using pectin, you can make a strawberry jam in only 10 minutes! Without pectin, jam can take up to four times longer to prepare, and it becomes much sweeter and darker the longer it cooks, taking away from its natural and delicious flavor.

To extract pectin from apples, follow this simple process:

  • Cut 2 pounds of tart green apples, with the skin, into pieces.
  • Add pieces to 4 cups of water and 1 tablespoon of lemon juice.
  • Let apples boil for 30 minutes, until the volume reduces in half.
  • Strain apples through a cheesecloth.
  • Boil apples for another 20 minutes.
  • Pour juices into a sanitized jar and keep it in the refrigerator.

When using a dry mix of pectin, you will notice that it easily forms lumps encased in a thin gel layer. The lumps make it difficult to dissolve the mix entirely, so try shearing the power into your mixture using a standing blender. You can also combine the pectin mix with other soluble powers, like sugar or salt, before whisking it into your liquid ingredients.

You will notice that pectin dissolves much more slowly in high-sugar solutions, so try whisking it into an organic and natural syrup so it dilutes easily. Once the dry pectin mix dilutes, you can add it to homemade jams, jellies and fruit bowls.


High-Pectin Recipes

Pectin is partially responsible for the detoxifying and fat-burning effects of lemon water. A glass of high-pectin lemon water every day aids digestion, provides ample vitamin C, rejuvenates your skin, boosts energy and helps you lose weight!

When preparing lemon water, it’s best to add the lemon juice to room temperature or warm water — start with half a lemon’s worth of juice. Drinking cold lemon water can be a shock to your system. You get the benefits of lemon water whenever you drink it, but sipping on it in the morning kick-starts your day. Try a glass about a half hour before breakfast; the lemon juice in your belly will help your body absorb your breakfast nutrients better.

Pears are another great source of pectin. For this reason, the fiber content in pears helps regulate blood sugar levels. Try my Pear Cranberry Salad for lunch or dinner. The flavors of this salad are interesting and work well together — plus you take advantage of the amazing pectin health benefits.

Zucchini is also a great source of pectin, so my Zucchini Noodles with Marinara Sauce would be a perfect meal to boost your fiber intake and lower cholesterol levels.

Baked Apple Cinnamon Oatmeal Recipe

Apples are a very high source of pectin, especially when they’re heated, so this baked apple recipe is a perfect way to boost pectin consumption.


Possible Pectin Interactions

Pectin is a naturally occurring polysaccharide, and it’s regarded as safe for human consumption and has been used successfully for many years in food and beverage industries.

Pectin might decrease the amount of tetracycline antibiotics that can be absorbed by the body. For this reason, taking pectin with tetracycline antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take pectin two hours before or four hours after taking tetracycline antibiotics. Some tetracycline antibiotics include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin) and tetracycline (Achromycin).

Pectin is high in fiber, and fiber can decrease the absorption and decrease the effectiveness of digoxin (Lanoxin). As a general rule, any medications taken by mouth should be taken one hour before or four hours after pectin to prevent this interaction.

Lovastatin (Mevacor) is used to help lower cholesterol, and pectin might decrease how much lovastatin the body absorbs and decrease the effectiveness of this medication. To avoid this interaction, take pectin at least one hour after lovastatin.

Read Next: Absorb More Nutrients with Digestive Enzymes


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