This Dr. Axe content is medically reviewed or fact checked to ensure factually accurate information.
With strict editorial sourcing guidelines, we only link to academic research institutions, reputable media sites and, when research is available, medically peer-reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) are clickable links to these studies.
The information in our articles is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice.
This article is based on scientific evidence, written by experts and fact checked by our trained editorial staff. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) are clickable links to medically peer-reviewed studies.
Our team includes licensed nutritionists and dietitians, certified health education specialists, as well as certified strength and conditioning specialists, personal trainers and corrective exercise specialists. Our team aims to be not only thorough with its research, but also objective and unbiased.
The information in our articles is NOT intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice.
Glucosamine Benefits for Joint Pain, Osteoarthritis and More
May 16, 2023
Although it may have a well-deserved reputation as one of the top arthritis supplements on the market, glucosamine does far more than just relieve joint pain.
What are the benefits of taking glucosamine? Research shows that it can help decrease inflammation, lead to improved gut health and more.
Not only is glucosamine extensively studied and widely available in both pharmacies and over-the-counter, but it also ranks as one of the safest supplements available, even when used for several months or even years.
What Is Glucosamine?
Glucosamine is a compound naturally found within the cartilage of your joints. It’s made from chains of sugars and proteins bound together. It acts as one of the body’s natural shock-absorbents and joint lubricants, allowing you to move around while minimizing joint, bone and muscle pain.
Why would you take glucosamine in supplement form? Glucosamine possesses powerful natural anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties.
As one of the top natural supplements for arthritis, it is often used in the treatment of age-related bone and joint pain. Your body needs glucosamine for the synthesis of certain proteins and fats that form important tissues such as cartilage. This plays an important part in the construction of your joints, tendons and ligaments.
In addition, it helps form the fluids that surround the joints to provide lubrication, also known as synovial fluid. It is also used to help improve digestion and gut health, mobility, range of motion and general joint health, even in healthy people who have no chronic joint or digestive disorders.
Most of the research done on this supplement have looked specifically at the benefits of glucosamine sulfate, the natural chemical found in the human body. The “sulfate” seems to play an important part in joint health because it helps the body produce cartilage.
It appears to have a greater impact than other forms, including glucosamine hydrochloride or N-acetyl glucosamine.
There’s no current recommended daily dosage for glucosamine, but most people do best when taking 500–1,500 milligrams daily, whether alone or in combination with other supplements like sulfate, omega-3s or in a MSM supplement. This dosage is often used to help:
- lower inflammation and help reverse autoimmune reactions
- preserve joint health
- reduce joint pain and tenderness
- protect and repair gut lining
- fight irritation to the stomach, bladder and intestines
- treat inflammatory bowel disease and leaky gut syndrome
- rebuild tissue and stronger bones following fractures or injuries
1. Improves Joint Health and Osteoarthritis
Why exactly is glucosamine good for joints? Researchers state that using glucosamine supplements, or obtaining it from natural sources like bone broth sources, can increase the amount of cartilage and synovial fluid someone maintains, helping to prevent joint breakdown and relieve pain.
Glucosamine is an amino-saccharide that helps create cartilage from compounds called aggrecan and proteoglycans. Since joint deterioration and loss of cartilage are common osteoarthritis triggers, it’s easy to see why studies suggest that it’s cartilage-building properties are important ways to naturally ease symptoms of the condition.
Although not every person with severe joint pain will benefit from glucosamine supplementation, many reviews report finding relief from pain within just six to eight weeks. Compared to many other supplements like chondroitin, glucosamine consistently ranks as one of the most effective for treating arthritis discomfort.
Studies and osteoarthritis research, including osteoarthritis randomized, placebo-controlled studies, show that taking about 800 to 1,500 milligrams of glucosamine daily can help millions of people suffering from degenerative joint diseases, preventing further damage, especially in commonly affected joints such as those in the knees and hips.
It has been shown to help offer relief from joint pain within 4–8 weeks, which might be longer than some prescriptions or over-the-counter painkillers, but it’s also a more natural and well-tolerated approach.
Glucosamine slows down deterioration of joints when used long-term and also offers other benefits that prescription painkillers cannot, such as reductions in chronic inflammation and improved digestive health. The results of taking it can differ from person to person, but some long-term users often report pain relief that allows them to avoid surgeries and lower or eliminate the use of medications.
The Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT), which is considered the most comprehensive trial ever done involving glucosamine, found that the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate used for eight weeks resulted in significant relief in the majority of study participants who had high amounts of joint pain. Many experienced improvements regarding their moderate-to-severe knee pain when using it for joint health.
2. Enhances Digestion and Eases Inflammatory Bowel Disorders
Glucosamine is vital for gut health as it serves an important role in the health of your microbiome, which has been shown to play a part in everything from chronic inflammation to disease development. In fact, one study out of Australia showed that supplementation with glucosamine sulfate may alter the composition of the beneficial bacteria in your gut, which could have far-reaching effects on health and immunity.
It’s even been shown to be an effective leaky gut supplement, combating a condition sometimes called “intestinal permeability,” in animal studies. This condition involves undigested food particles and proteins (like gluten, toxins and microbes) passing into the bloodstream through tiny openings in the lining of the GI tract.
Research suggests that glucosamine supplements, or naturally glucosamine-rich bone broth, could help repair damaged tissue and lower inflammation related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a condition that is notoriously painful and hard to treat.
In 2000, researchers from University College School of Medicine found that glucosamine was an effective, inexpensive and nontoxic supplement used for treating chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
They also showed that children affected by inflammatory bowel disease tend to have lower levels of glucosamine in the body. Interestingly, N-acetyl cysteine supplementation (GlcNAc) offered a mode of action distinct from other treatments, resulting in reduced symptoms in 75 percent of patients.
Other evidence suggests that glucosamine may also help repair the lining of the bladder, stomach and intestines.
3. Helps Relieve TMJ Symptoms
TMJ is a disorder related to the temporo-manibular joint in the jaw and is a common condition that affects young to middle-aged adults. It makes it harder to talk, eat and function normally.
How does glucosamine work for TMJ? Studies indicate glucosamine helps ease TMJ symptoms and pain in people with arthritis that affects the jaw.
One 2018 review out of Brazil showed that glucosamine was as effective as ibuprofen at relieving pain when taken over a 12-week period. Taking 500 to 1,500 milligrams of it daily for several months or years may help you sleep better, chew and heal while lowering inflammation in the jaw long-term.
4. Alleviates Bone Pain
Many people with bone pain, low bone density and a history of fractures can benefit from taking glucosamine, which also aids in bone healing. This is especially true if they also have chronic joint pain or a form of arthritis.
Some evidence suggests that it helps preserve articular cartilage surrounding bones, decreases pain, increases physical function and enhances activities in people with bone disorders or those who are at most at risk for bone loss, such as middle-aged and older women.
5. May Help Support Cardiovascular Health
Glucosamine has anti-inflammatory properties, and regular use is associated with lower levels of blood C-reactive protein, which is a marker for inflammation
According to an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine, results from animal and cross-sectional human studies suggest that glucosamine use lowers cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk.
In one study (the U.K. Biobank prospective study), researchers found an association between regular use of glucosamine and lowered CVD risk among almost 500,000 adults. Regular glucosamine users had significantly lower risks for overall adverse CVD events (15 percent lower), cardiovascular-related death (22 percent lower), coronary heart disease (18 percent lower), and nonfatal stroke (9 percent lower) compared to nonusers.
These associations were found to be especially strong for current smokers.
Supplement Types and Dosage
Glucosamine supplements can be found in several forms, including:
- Glucosamine sulfate (aka glucosamine sulphate)
- Glucosamine hydrochloride (glucosamine hcl)
- N-acetylglucosamine or acetylglucosamine
Glucosamine sulfate (or glucosamine sulphate) is considered the most beneficial and best oral form because it’s easily absorbed and has been extensively researched. It also contains sulfate, which is required for the production and maintenance of cartilage.
Glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetylglucosamine, on the other hand, have not been as well-studied and are lacking the sulfate component necessary for cartilage production.
Below are recommended oral glucosamine dosage instructions for adults:
- For improving joint health and lowering joint pain: 500 to 1,500 milligrams daily (can be taken as 500 milligrams in three divided doses). You can use it in combination with other anti-inflammatory supplements, including turmeric and omega-3 fatty acids.
- For easing arthritis/osteoarthritis symptoms: 800 to 1,500 milligrams daily taken with 400 milligrams of chondroitin sulfate. This amount can safely be used long-term for up to three years. You can also use a topical cream containing 30 milligrams glucosamine, which you can apply to painful areas for up to two months at a time.
- For improving digestive health: 500 to 1,500 milligrams taken daily. You might want to combine it with other helpful supplements known to boost gut health like MSM, licorice root, digestive enzymes or probiotics.
Glucosamine vs. Chondroitin vs. Glutamine
Glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM are three of the most common supplements used to promote joint health, but there are several notable differences between them.
- Like glucosamine, chondroitin is a naturally occurring substance found in the connective tissue of your body. Chondroitin sulfate is a supplement that works like glucosamine to promote joint health and reduce inflammation, according to studies. Many joint health supplements combine glucosamine and chondroitin to take advantage of the unique health benefits of both.
- Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound that is found in the tissues of all living organisms. Similar to glucosamine, MSM can help improve immunity and decrease inflammation to alleviate joint pain.
- Glutamine, on the other hand, is a type of essential amino acid required by the body. It’s often found in supplement form and is used to enhance weight loss, increase fat-burning and build muscle mass and strength. Much like glucosamine, it has been shown to reduce intestinal permeability to reduce inflammation and protect against conditions like leaky gut syndrome.
Risks, Side Effects and Drug Interactions
Since it’s already present within the human body, glucosamine is usually very safe and well-tolerated. Many studies have found that daily use of it can improve symptoms in adults with a very low risk of side effects.
However, it can cause food allergy symptoms in those who have an allergy to the source used to make glucosamine supplements (such as shellfish). If you have a known shellfish allergy, make sure to carefully check the label and ingredient information, as many supplements are derived from crustaceans.
What are the side effects of taking glucosamine? Although rare, potential side effects of glucosamine supplements may include: indigestion, nausea, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, skin reactions and headaches.
Research is limited on the effects of it on women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, so it’s best to avoid taking supplements during these times unless under medical supervision.
There is also some evidence that glucosamine supplements in high doses might have the potential to cause changes in cholesterol, insulin resistance and blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or high cholesterol, so be careful if you fall into these categories and consider consulting with your doctor to address any concerns. Be sure to also discuss potential interactions if you take medications like chemotherapy drugs, including etoposide, teniposide and doxorubicin.
Glucosamine for Dogs
Besides helping ease joint pain and improving digestive health in older adults, glucosamine can also be used to improve the quality of life for your furry friends, too. In fact, it’s a common ingredient in both chews and capsules designed to help improve joint function in dogs as they start to get older.
Vets typically recommend starting off with a “loading dose” for a few weeks and then scaling down to a lower maintenance dose for long-term use. Although symptoms can start to improve over a period of just a few weeks, your dog can continue taking glucosamine even longer to further protect and preserve joint health with advanced age.
Joint supplements geared specifically towards older dogs often contain a mix of ingredients, including glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM. They are typically available over-the-counter but can be prescribed by your veterinarian as well.
History and Facts
Glucosamine was first identified in 1876 by German surgeon, Dr. Georg Ledderhose, who had been conducting experiments on cartilage in Strassburg. It took another 63 years, however, until the stereochemistry of the compound was determined by British chemist, Norman Haworth, the same scientist who received a Nobel prize for his research on carbohydrates and vitamin C.
Although it’s generally considered safe, it has not been approved for medical use in humans by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. For this reason, it is classified as a dietary supplement rather than a medication.
In most of Europe, however, glucosamine is approved for use as a medical drug and is often recommended as a safe treatment for conditions like osteoarthritis. In 2003, the European League Against Rheumatism updated their recommendations for the management and treatment of knee osteoarthritis by evaluating the safety of commonly used medications. It was found to be one of the least toxic ingredients, scoring a 5 out of 100 in terms of toxicity.
- Glucosamine is a compound naturally found within the cartilage of your joints.
- It has anti-inflammatory properties and has been shown to improve joint health, enhance digestion, alleviate bone pain and reduce TMJ symptoms.
- Glucosamine, chondroitin and MSM are common medications used to treat joint pain. They are often used alone or together as part of a joint health complex.
- You can find glucosamine in some food sources, including bone broth, allowing you to take full advantage of the health-promoting properties of this powerful compound.