Probiotics Benefits, Foods and Supplements — a Vital Part of Any Diet

February 23, 2018

 

Probiotics benefits - Dr. Axe

Did you know that bacteria might actually keep you healthy? It all just depends on the type of bacteria. In this case, we’re talking about the benefits of probiotics.

Probiotics benefits are one of the most widely researched natural solutions to gut health. For years, scientists and physicians have observed the many benefits of probiotics for not just the gut, but for the entire body.

In this complete probiotic guide, you will learn everything you need to know about probiotics, including the best probiotic foods, best probiotic supplements and how to use them.


What Are Probiotics?

Probiotics are bacteria that line your digestive tract and support your body’s ability to absorb nutrients and fight infection. Your body contains about the same number of gut bacteria molecules as it does cells for the rest of your body, so it’s no wonder your gut is so important to your health. (1)

The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) calls probiotics “live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut.” The NCCIH makes the point that we often think of bacteria as harmful “germs;” however, probiotic bacteria actually helps the body function properly. (2)

Your skin and digestive system alone host about 2,000 different types of bacteria. Probiotics benefits have been proven effective in supporting immune function, reducing inflammation, promoting healthy digestion, as well as maintaining beautiful skin, especially when combined with prebiotics. (3, 4, 5, 6)

Your good gut bacteria is also responsible for:

  • Producing vitamin B12, butyrate and vitamin K2 (7)
  • Crowding out bad microbes (8)
  • Creating enzymes that destroy harmful bacteria (8)
  • Stimulating secretion of IgA and regulatory T-cells, which support immune function (9, 10)

Probiotics have been in our systems from the moment we were born. When a newborn is in the birth canal of the mother during delivery, the baby is exposed to the bacteria of his or her mother for the first time. This event starts a chain of events inside the baby’s GI tract, and the infant’s GI tract starts to produce good bacteria.

Historically, we had plenty of probiotics in our diets from eating fresh foods from good soil and by fermenting our foods to keep them from spoiling. Over a century ago, the Russian Nobel Prize winner Elie Metchnikoff theorized that “health could be enhanced and senility delayed by manipulating the intestinal microbiome with host-friendly bacteria found in yogurt.” (11) Metchnikoff was ahead of his time with his view of probiotics benefits, but he also was aware that most citizens had regular access to probiotic foods.

Today, however, because of refrigeration and agricultural practices like soaking our foods with chlorine, much of our food contains little to no probiotics in the name of sanitation. Actually, many foods actually contain dangerous antibiotics that kill off the good bacteria in our bodies.

 

Guide to probiotics - Dr. Axe

Probiotics Benefits Begin in the Gut

The first and most overlooked reason that our digestive tracts are critical to our health is because 70–80 percent of your entire immune system is located in your digestive tract! (12) That is an astounding percentage.

In addition to the impact on our immune systems, our digestive systems are the second largest part of our neurological system. It’s called the enteric nervous system and is located in the gut. (13) This is why it’s called our second brain — the gut is responsible for creating 95 percent of the serotonin and may have significant impact on brain function and mood. (14)

Many health issues, such as thyroid imbalances, chronic fatigue, joint pain, psoriasis and autism are connected with gut function, and yet it is not conventional practice for most in the field of medicine to address the gut first when treating such conditions.

If these issues and many others are connected to our gut health, then what elements are essential for digestive health? Consider this: According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, upward of 60 million to 70 million Americans are affected by digestive diseases. In addition, digestive disease and disorders cost the U.S. over $100 billion per year. (15)

These statistics are staggering, yet poor gut health actually affects much greater numbers than these statistics illustrate because your digestive health affects every physiological system in your body. How is this such a complex system? Well, for one, the human microbiome contains 360 times more protein-coding genes than human genes themselves contain. (16)

Every day, we’re exposed to toxins and inflammation-causing molecules from food and the environment that negatively impact digestion through pathways such as leaky gut, known in the medical field as intestinal hyperpermeability. In leaky gut, the tight junctions (TJs) that are supposed to keep disease-contributing compounds from leaving the digestive system are disrupted, allowing through a lot of things into the bloodstream that didn’t belong there. (17a)

This process is linked closely to inflammation, which is at the root of most diseases, autoimmune conditions, inflammatory bowel diseases, thyroid dysfunction, nutrient malabsorption and mental issues (including depression and autism). (17b)

The secret to digestive health is all about balancing out the good and bad bacteria in your gut. In a healthy life, consuming probiotic-rich foods and supplements daily are likely one feature of that balancing act.


Top 11 Probiotic Killers

Various environmental and dietary habits can lead to issues with the quality of your gut bacteria. Even if you take probiotic supplements every day, failing to get rid of probiotic killers like the ones below may still prevent your body from getting all the tremendous probiotics benefits it needs.

Remember, the bacteria in the microbiome is a complex system and it’s affected by a large number of factors. The more factors you bring into alignment, the better chance you have at keeping your gut bacteria healthy and diverse.

The top culprits for the destruction of gut bacteria include:

  1. Overuse of prescription antibiotics (18)
  2. Sugar (19, 20)
  3. GMO foods (21, 22)
  4. Inflammatory gluten (23)
  5. Emotional stress (24)
  6. Medications (25)
  7. Alcohol (except for red wine(26, 27)
  8. Lack of exercise (28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33)
  9. Over-sanitation (34)
  10. Smoking (35)
  11. Poor sleep habits (36, 37, 38, 39)

10 Probiotics Benefits

Many studies have been conducted about the benefits of probiotics on a large number of health issues and conditions. Here, I’ll focus on the more thoroughly researched probiotics benefits, largely by sharing the results of meta-analyses on the subjects. Then, I have listed several areas of emerging research on the benefits of probiotics, reflected in small or pilot studies with promising results.

1. Digestive Health

The first major benefit of probiotics is as a promoter of good digestive health. (40) According to a meta-analysis conducted by Dalhousie University in Nova Scotia, “Probiotics are generally beneficial in treatment and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases… When choosing to use probiotics in the treatment or prevention of gastrointestinal disease, the type of disease and probiotic species (strain) are the most important factors to take into consideration.” (41)

Eating foods rich in good bacteria and using probiotic supplements may help to provide protection from inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. (42) The evidence is stronger, however, for an improvement in ulcerative colitis, while Crohn’s disease may not benefit as greatly. (43, 44)

Large bodies of evidence suggest that probiotics are effective against several forms of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea, acute diarrhea and traveler’s diarrhea. (45, 46, 47, 48)

Probiotics have also been found in meta-analyses to reduce the pain and severity of IBS symptoms, aid in the eradication of H. pylori and treat pouchitis, a condition that occurs after the surgical removal of the large intestine and rectum. (49, 50, 51)

2. Decrease in Antibiotic Resistance

The World Health Organization considers antibiotic resistance “one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development today.” (52) Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics due to the overuse of prescription antibiotics, lack of diversity in these medications and improper use of antibiotics

By using probiotics, it’s possible to help rebuild a poor variety of gut bacteria often seen after a course of antibiotics. In addition, probiotic supplements and foods may increase the effectiveness of antibiotics and help prevent the bacteria in your body from becoming resistant. (53, 54)

3. May Improve Mental Illness

The “second” brain of the gut has been a major point of research since scientists have discovered the importance of the gut-brain connection.

A review in 2015 highlighted the complex interactions between the gut and brain, stating:

[Various gut-brain] interactions seem to influence the pathogenesis of a number of disorders in which inflammation is implicated, such as mood disorder, autism-spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hypersensitivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, and obesity. (55)

The authors go on to discuss the need for “pscyhobiotics” (probiotics that impact brain function) in handling the development of these conditions.

This anti-inflammatory quality is what seems to interest researchers most. While no studies have been conducted in humans, early research suggests that, in animals, probiotic supplements may help to alleviate symptoms of anxiety by reducing inflammation along this gut-brain connection. (56)

Probiotics benefits do definitely seem to include a reduction in depression symptoms, according to a 2016 meta-analysis  the first review of its kind. (57)

A slightly more surprising result, however, seems to be the way that probiotics may impact some of the symptoms of autism. Autism and gut health have been discussed for some time, as patients with the disorder typically suffer from a large number of digestive issues. However, based on animal studies, it seems possible that altering the quality of gut bacteria might benefit not only the digestive system but the abnormal behaviors in autism, too. (58)

In 2016, a case study of a boy with severe autism was reported. While being treated with probiotics for digestive problems, the patient spontaneously improved on the ADOS scale, a diagnostic rating system for people with autism. The score dropped from 20 down three points to a stable 17, and according to the report, ADOS scores do not “fluctuate spontaneously along time” and are “absolutely stable.” (59)

Because of results like those above, human studies are currently underway to determine if probiotic supplements may improve not only the GI symptoms seen in autism but also on “the core deficits of the disorder, on cognitive and language development, and on brain function and connectivity.” (60)

4. Immunity Boost & Decrease in Inflammation

Both probiotics and prebiotics are a continuing topic of research regarding immunity. When used in conjunction, scientists refer to them collectively as synbiotics. (61) One 2015 review on the subject stated, “We suggest that LAB and Bifidobacteria and novel strains [of probiotics] might be an additional or supplementary therapy and may have potential for preventing wide scope of immunity-related diseases due anti-inflammatory effect.” (62)

Because chronic inflammation is at the root of many diseases and health conditions, the fact that probiotics exert this effect in the gut, where 80 percent of the immune system lies, is crucial. The immune-boosting benefits of probiotics seem to be particularly helpful for the quality of life of seniors. (63, 64) Probiotics containing Bifidobacteria might even be a helpful protection against the common cold or flu. (65)

Currently, research is being undertaken to test whether probiotics can “reduce inflammation and immprove gut immune health in HIV-positive individuals” who haven’t yet undergone treatment. (66)

 

Probiotics benefits - Dr. Axe

 

5. Healthy Skin

Many avenues of research have examined probiotics benefits for skin, especially in children. Meta-analyses have found that probiotic supplements are effective in the prevention of pediatric atopic dermatitis and infant eczema. (67, 68, 69) The integrity of gut bacteria is also connected to the development of acne, although the way this happens is still unclear. (70)

The skin benefits of probiotics seem also to be connected to the reduction of inflammation seen in healthy gut bacteria. L. casei, a particular strain of probiotic, “can reduce antigen-specific skin inflammation.” (71) Indeed, research suggests that having a balanced gut environment has benefits for both healthy and diseased human skin. (72)

6. Food Allergy Protection

Did you know that infants with poor gut bacteria are more likely to develop allergies over the first two years of life? (73) The reason probiotics can help reduce food allergy symptoms, in particular, is most likely due to their abilities to reduce chronic inflammation in the gut and regulate immune responses — in adults as well as children. (74, 75, 76, 77)

7. May Treat Serious Diseases in Infants

Two dangerous diseases in newborns, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and neonatal sepsis, may meet their match with well-designed probiotic supplements. Both of these conditions are common in premature babies and are most dangerous in low birth weight (LBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Research has confirmed that when a pregnant mother takes high-quality probiotics during pregnancy, her baby will be significantly less likely to develop either NEC or sepsis, particularly when the baby is breastfed after birth (and mom is still taking the supplements) and/or when probiotics are added to formula. A probiotic supplement with multiple strains seems to be the most effective in these cases. (78)

One review of probiotics benefits for necrotizing enterocolitis was bold enough to say that, “The results confirm the significant benefits of probiotic supplements in reducing death and disease in preterm neonates. The … evidence indicate that additional placebo-controlled trials are unnecessary if a suitable probiotic product is available.” (79)

Regarding sepsis in developing countries (where it is overwhelmingly more common), a 2017 randomized, controlled trial claims that a large number of these cases “could be effectively prevented” if mothers are given a synbiotic (probiotic and prebiotic together) which contains the probiotic strain L. plantarum. (80)

8. Lowering Blood Pressure

A large analysis reviewed available research and determined that probiotics help to lower blood pressure by improving lipid profiles (the amount of heart-related substances in the blood, like cholesterol and triglycerides), reducing insulin resistance, regulating renin levels (a protein and enzyme secreted by the kidneys to lower blood pressure) and activating antioxidants. Researchers consider them valuable prospects in the treatment of high blood pressure because their side effects are generally minimal or non-existent. (81, 82)

These effects are most pronounced in people who already have hypertension (high blood pressure) and improve when the subject consumes multiple probiotic strains for at least eight weeks or more in supplements containing 100 billion or more colony-forming units (CFUs). (82)

9. Diabetes Treatment

Several large-scale studies and two meta-analyses have confirmed that probiotics should be a major consideration in determining natural remedies for diabetes.

In a massive study involving almost 200,000 subjects and a total of 15,156 cases of Type 2 diabetes, researchers confirmed that a higher intake of probiotic-rich yogurt reduced the risk of developing diabetes. (83)

According to a 2014 meta-analysis, probiotics benefit diabetics by improving insulin sensitivity and decreasing the autoimmune response found in diabetes. The authors suggest that the results were significant enough to conduct large, randomized, controlled trials (the “gold standard” of scientific studies) to find if probiotics may actually be used to prevent or manage diabetes symptoms. (84)

Combining probiotics with prebiotics may also help manage blood sugar, particularly when blood sugar levels are already elevated. (85)

10. May Improve Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 80 to 100 million people in the U.S. alone. Characterized by fatty buildup in the liver, NAFLD can eventually lead to cirrhosis, ending in liver failure or death for some patients.

A 2013 meta-analysis of studies on probiotics and NAFLD found that using probiotics can improve a number of important factors for patients with the disease, leading the study authors to state that: “Modulation of the gut microbiota represents a new treatment for NAFLD.” (86)


Emerging Research on Probiotics Benefits for Other Conditions

Cancer

Preliminary research suggests that certain probiotic strains may help to prevent or slow/stop the growth of bladder and colorectal cancers. (87, 88) For colorectal/colon cancer, this effect may be increased by the use of prebiotics along with probiotic supplements. (89)

One review on the current studies regarding cancer and probiotics stated that evidence does support that probiotics benefits may include an “anticarcinogenic action,” but that the quality of trials available was low and more research must be done before a conclusion can be drawn for certain. (90)

Dental Health

In a review of current evidence in 2009, European scientists determined that probiotic therapy could be a potential new option for dental health. The first randomized, controlled trials in humans suggest certain probiotic strains may aid in the prevention of cavities. (91)

Urinary Tract Infections

Because of the way bacteria spread from the rectum to the vagina and urinary tract in women, probiotics have been a proposed remedy for urinary tract infection (UTI) in women. (92) A 2012 review confirmed that probiotics seem to be effective in preventing recurrent UTIs, but more research is required before a determination can be made. The healthy strains of bacteria that help achieve this are also somewhat less common, which means proper treatment could be logistically complicated. (93)

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Because poor gut health is related to autoimmune responses like those found in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), probiotics have been a proposed treatment option for the condition. Only a few studies have been conducted in humans, and only one testing L. casei 01, a particular probiotic strain, was able to find a decrease in RA inflammation and progression of the disease. (94)

However, a 2003 pilot study and 2011 randomized, controlled trial both reported that RA activities remained unchanged, but that subjects treated with probiotics reported statistically significantly higher levels of “subjective well-being.” One suggested reason for this was that the trials were too short to establish changes in the observable changes in the internal earmarks of RA. (95, 96)

Kidney Stones

A number of species of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotics might potentially help to degrade oxalate, which cause kidney stones. Researchers are interested in these options because, unlike other medical treatments for kidney stones, probiotic bacteria survive in the gut. (97)

However, human research must first be designed and conducted before it’s definitive that these bacteria could be effective. Scientists aren’t yet sure if the microbiome can be manipulated in such a way that will effectively decrease kidney stone risk. (98)

Weight Loss

In the past, probiotics have been proposed as part of a weight loss diet. However, a 2015 meta-analysis looked at available randomized, controlled trials investigating this effect, and determined that the studies did not seem to support this hypothesis, as body weight and BMI were not consistently reduced. They did point out the need for better designed trials, because they were not convinced the results were based on well-designed science. (99)


How Probiotics Work

Your gut contains both beneficial and harmful bacteria. Digestive experts agree that the balance of gut flora should be approximately 85 percent good bacteria and 15 percent bad bacteria. (100)

If this ratio gets out of balance, the condition is known as dysbiosis, which means there’s an imbalance of too much of a certain type of fungus, yeast or bacteria that affects the body in a negative way. By consuming certain types of probiotics foods and supplements (often in capsule form), you can help bring these ratios back into balance.

Also, it’s important to understand that probiotics are not a new idea. Throughout history, cultures have thrived on probiotics found in fermented foods and cultured foods, which were invented for food preservation long before the refrigerator. (101) The process of fermentation has been lost in recent years, as it is no longer needed to preserve foods, meaning that we now lose out on those vital probiotics benefits.


4 Steps to Get More Probiotics in Your System and Reap Probiotics Benefits

1. Eat More Sour Foods

Step No. 1 is consume more sour foods. Embrace what I call “the power of sour” with sour foods like apple cider vinegar and fermented vegetables. They contain some probiotics, but also they contain certain types of acids like gluconic acid and acetic acid, healthy acids that support the function of probiotics (even functioning like prebiotics in some cases). (102, 103)

It’s great to get some healthy sour foods. I often add one tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to a drink, twice a day. Before breakfast and lunch or breakfast and dinner, add one tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in your meal, and then start consuming more fermented vegetables like sauerkraut and kimchi, or drinking kvass.

2. Consume More Probiotic-Rich Foods

The second way to get the benefits of probiotics is to start consuming more probiotic-rich foods. These are things like high-quality goat milk yogurt, kefir, coconut kefir and kombucha. Getting more probiotic-rich foods in your diet is essential to boosting your gut bacteria.

A few ways to incorporate these foods would be to add kefir, one of my favorites, in your morning smoothie, or to eat some organic probiotic yogurt during the day.

 

 

3. Feed the Probiotics in Your System

Step No. 3 to naturally boost probiotics in your system is to start to feed the probiotics. Think about this: Probiotics are living organisms. If they’re going live in your body, they need fuel, they need to feed off something, they need good soil. That soil is fermentable fiber.

Getting good, high-quality fiber in your diet can actually cause probiotics to increase in your body. (104) Some of my favorite high-fiber foods include chia seeds and flaxseeds, both of which work great in a morning smoothie. Other great additions to a healthy high-fiber diet might include organic fruits, vegetables and sweet potatoes.

4. Take a Quality Probiotic Supplement

Last but not least, taking a quality probiotic supplement is a great way to improve your gut microflora, but there are some specifics you’ll want to be aware of when purchasing, which I explain below.


Top 10 Probiotic-Rich Foods

1. Kefir

Similar to yogurt, this fermented dairy product is a unique combination of milk and fermented kefir grains. Kefir has been consumed for well over 3,000 years, and the term kefir was started in Russia and Turkey and means “feeling good.” Kefir is created by the fermentation of milk by the bacteria, and yeasts in kefir starter break down lactose in the milk — that’s why kefir may be suitable for those who are otherwise lactose intolerant.

It has a slightly acidic and tart flavor and contains anywhere from 10 to 34 strains of probiotics. Kefir is similar to yogurt, but because it’s fermented with yeast and more bacteria, the final product is higher in probiotics. If you want to learn more, check out this article on how kefir benefits your health.

2. Sauerkraut

Made from fermented cabbage and other vegetables, sauerkraut is not diverse in probiotics but is high in organic acids (what gives food its sour taste) that support the growth of good bacteria. Sauerkraut is extremely popular in Germany today.

Sauerkraut is high in vitamin C and digestive enzymes. It’s also a good source of natural lactic acid bacteria, such as lactobacillus.

3. Kimchi

Kimchi is a cousin to sauerkraut and is the Korean take on cultured veggies.

It’s created by mixing a main ingredient, such as Chinese cabbage, with a number of other foods and spices, like red pepper flakes, radishes, carrots, garlic, ginger, onion, sea salt and fish sauce. The mixture is then left aside to ferment for three to 14 days.

4. Coconut Kefir

Made by fermenting the juice of young coconuts with kefir grains, this dairy-free option for kefir has some of the same probiotics as traditional dairy kefir but is typically not as high in probiotics. Still, it has several strains that are great for your health.

Coconut kefir has a great flavor, and you can add a bit of stevia, water and lime juice to it to make a great-tasting drink.

5. Natto

A popular dish in Japan consisting of fermented soybeans, natto contains the extremely powerful probiotic bacillus subtilis, which has been proven to bolster your immune system, support cardiovascular health and enhance digestion of vitamin K2.

Natto can also contain vitamin B12, which is usually lacking in vegan diets. It’s also one of the highest plant-based proteins at 31 grams of protein per cup.

6. Yogurt

Possibly the most popular probiotic food is live cultured yogurt or greek yogurt made from the milk of cows, goats or sheep.

Yogurt, in most cases, can rank at the top of probiotic foods if it comes from raw, grass-fed animals. The problem is there is a large variation on the quality of yogurts on the market today. When buying yogurt, look for three things: First, that it comes from goat’s, sheep milk or A2 cows milk, second, that it’s grass-fed and third, that it’s organic.

7. Kvass

Kvass is a common fermented beverage in Eastern Europe since ancient times. It was traditionally made by fermenting rye or barley, which gives it its mild flavor. In more recent years, it’s been created using beets, fruit, along with other root vegetables like carrots.

8. Miso

Miso is one of the mainstays of traditional Japanese medicine and is commonly used in macrobiotic cooking as a digestive regulator. Miso has been a staple in Chinese and Japanese diets dating back approximately 2,500 years.

Today, most of the Japanese population begins the day with a warm bowl of miso soup, believed to stimulate the digestive system and energize the body. Made from fermented soybeans, rice or barley, adding a tablespoon of miso to some hot water makes an excellent, quick, probiotic-rich soup. The fermentation process can take anywhere from a few days to a couple of years to complete, and the end result is a red, white or dark brown paste with a buttery texture.

Miso soup is famous throughout the world, and it’s very easy to prepare. Simply dissolve a tablespoonful of miso in a pot of water filled with seaweed and other ingredients of your choice.

9. Kombucha

Kombucha is an effervescent fermentation of black tea that’s started by using a SCOBY, also known as a symbiotic colony of bacteria and yeast. Kombucha has been around for over 2,000 years and was thought to originate in 212 B.C. in the Far East. It later surfaced in Japan and then spread to Russia.

Many claims have been made about why you should drink kombucha every day, but its primarily health benefits include digestive support, immune support and liver detoxification.

10. Raw Dairy

Raw cow’s milk, goat’s milk, sheep’s milk and A2 aged cheeses are particularly high in probiotics. Just remember, all pasteurized dairy is devoid of healthy bacteria, so to get the probiotics, you’ll need to stick to only high-quality, raw dairy.


How to Pick the Best Probiotic Supplements

It’s important to note that there are different types of strains of probiotics. The probiotics benefits of one probiotic strain may be completely different from the health benefits seen from another probiotic. If you want to use probiotics to address a specific health concern, it’s vital to select the right probiotic for the right condition  or you can consume a wide range of probiotics in your food to be covered.

As we said earlier, you are what you digest, and living probiotics are a vital part of a healthy gut environment to support many facets of health.

When reading a probiotic label, it should reveal the genus, species and strain of the probiotic. The product (usually in capsules) should also give you the colony forming units (CFUs) at the time of manufacturing. Also, the majority of probiotics can die under heat, so knowing the company had proper storing and cooling of the facility is also important.

There are five specific things you want to consider when buying a probiotic supplement:

  1. Brand quality — Look for reputable, established supplement brands with readily available customer reviews.
  2. High CFU count — Purchase a probiotic brand that has a higher number of probiotics, from 15 billion to 100 billion.
  3. Strain diversity — Search for a probiotic supplement that has 10–30 different strains, unless you are looking for a specific strain on its own for a particular reason.
  4. Survivability — Look for strains like Bacillus coagulans, Saccharomyces boulardii, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and other cultures or formulas that ensure probiotics make it to the gut and are able to colonize.
  5. Research — Do your homework and look for brands that have strains that support your specific needs.

Here are a few more things to look for in your probiotic capsules:

Stay away from general health claims and consider how much information is really on a label.

  • Stability: Some probiotic strains need to be kept cold in order to preserve their potency. This applies to their production, transport, storage and sales.
  • Date: The fresher, the better, when you’re talking about living organisms.
  • Sugar: Sugar is not a good food source for probiotics. Prebiotics are the food source meant to keep probiotics alive. A synbiotic is a supplement that contains both prebiotics and probiotics. The best synbiotics contain healthy plant starches and fiber.
  • Living vs. dead: “Live and active cultures” is a better bet than “made with active cultures.” After fermentation, the product may be heat-treated, which kills off both good and bad bacteria (extending shelf life).
  • Bacteria type: “Live and active cultures” does not necessarily mean that the kinds of bacteria the product holds have been proven as beneficial. The bacteria strain should consist of two names and two letters: the genus, species and strain. If the label lists two names, it could be any one of hundreds of bacteria without research or proven health benefits behind it.
  • Potency: This is where it gets tricky. Most probiotic products don’t list the amount of bacteria their products contain, and the amount that’s effective depends upon many qualifiers. Health benefits can occur with 50 million CFUs for certain conditions and may take as many as 1 trillion CFU for others. The higher the number, the better.

Beneficial Probiotic Strains

While many people report beneficial effects from taking a probiotic supplement with many strains, you may want to dive a little further into what specific species can do. These are some of the beneficial bacteria you can expect to see on a high-quality probiotic supplement label.

  • Bifidobacterium bifidum
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Bifidobacterium breve
  • Bifidobacterium infantis
  • Lactobacillus casei
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus
  • Lactobacillus bulgaricus
  • Lactobacillus brevis
  • Lactobacillus rhamnosus
  • Bacillus subtilis
  • Bacillus coagulans
  • Saccharomyces boulardii

Probiotics Side Effects/Precautions

All probiotics aren’t created equally. Not all strains will have beneficial effects, and it’s important to do your research before starting a new supplement. (105) And, as always, all new supplement regimens should be conducted under the supervision of a medical professional.

Probiotic side effects can sometimes include diarrhea if you take too much too fast. You can start off with a smaller amount like one tablespoon of kefir or one probiotic capsule a day and work your way up, if you’re just getting into eating probiotic foods or taking supplements.

One very rare side effect of probiotics seen in cancer patients is sepsis. This is an extremely rare occurrence. (106)

Overall, most studies have found that probiotics are associated with very few side effects, and a large number of benefits.


Final Thoughts on Probiotics Benefits

  • Probiotics are bacteria in your digestive tract that support the immune system and help reduce chronic inflammation, potentially impacting the development of a large number of diseases.
  • Because so much of your health begins in the complex microbiome of the gut, proper balance of your gut bacteria is crucial to all-over health.
  • The first step in cultivating a healthy gut with probiotics is to avoid good bacteria “killers” like sugar, chronic stress and alcohol.
  • Extensive research has found that probiotics have a number of health benefits, including the prevention of digestive diseases, increased immunity and more.
  • You can incorporate probiotics into your routine by eating more sour and fermented foods, feeding your gut bacteria with insoluble fiber in high-fiber foods and even by taking a high-quality probiotic supplement.

Read Next: 7 Reasons to Get Prebiotics in Your Diet — Plus Best Sources


From the sound of it, you might think leaky gut only affects the digestive system, but in reality it can affect more. Because Leaky Gut is so common, and such an enigma, I’m offering a free webinar on all things leaky gut. Click here to learn more about the webinar.

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