A plum is a fruit of the subgenus and genus Prunus. Plums are in the same family as benefit-rich cherries and peaches, as they all are flowers that make a fruit with a groove running down one side and a smooth stone or pit. Did you know that plum remains have been found in Neolithic Age archaeological sites along with olives, grapes and figs? In fact, plums may have been one of the first fruits domesticated by humans!
Commercial plum trees are medium-sized, usually pruned to 16 feet height. The plums are usually of medium size, between 1–3 inches in diameter, and the shape is globe-like or oval. It’s characterized as a drupe, meaning the fleshy fruit surrounds a single hard seed.
Plums come in a wide variety of colors and sizes — some are much firmer-fleshed than others, and the colors range from yellow, white, green to red. The taste of the plum ranges from sweet to tart. The fruit is juicy and delicious when eaten fresh; it can also be dried, used in jam-making and other recipes. Plum juice can even be fermented into plum wine.
Dried plums (or prunes) are also sweet and juicy; plus, they contain several antioxidants and are considered a top antioxidant food. Plums and prunes are both known for their laxative effect, which has been attributed to various compounds present in the fruits, such as dietary fiber, sorbitol and isatin. Because it aids the digestive system, prunes and prune juice are often used to help regulate the functioning of the digestive system.
A 2013 paper published in Critical Reviews in Food and Science Nutrition suggests that snacking on dried plums may increase satiety and reduce the subsequent intake of food, helping to control obesity, diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. Despite their sweet taste, dried plums do not cause a major rise in blood glucose and insulin after meals.
Dried plums also affect the gastrointestinal tract by preventing constipation and possibly colon cancer. The bioactive compounds in dried plums, and their metabolites, may also act as antibacterial agents in both gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.
Plum Nutrition Facts
The many plum benefits are a result of its vitamin and mineral content. Plums not only aid digestion, but they’re also known to improve cardiovascular health, boost the immune system, aid skin health, fight free radicals and lower cholesterol.
One cup of sliced plum has about:
- 76 calories
- zero grams fat
- 19 grams carbohydrate
- 2 grams dietary fiber
- 16 grams sugar
- 1 gram protein
- 15 milligrams vitamin C (26 percent DV)
- 10 micrograms vitamin K (13 percent DV)
- 569 international units vitamin A (11 percent DV)
- 0.01 milligrams thiamin (3 percent DV)
- 0.01 milligrams riboflavin (3 percent DV)
- 0.7 milligrams niacin (3 percent DV)
- 0.4 milligrams vitamin E (2 percent DV)
- 0.01 milligrams vitamin B6 (2 percent DV)
- 8.3 micrograms folate (2 percent DV)
- 0.2 milligrams pantothenic acid (2 percent DV)
- 259 milligrams potassium (7 percent DV)
- 0.1 milligrams copper (5 percent DV)
- 0.1 milligrams manganese (4 percent DV)
- 11 milligrams magnesium (3 percent DV)
- 26 milligrams phosphorus (3 percent DV)
- 0.3 milligrams iron (2 percent DV)
9 Plum Benefits
1. High Source of Antioxidants
One major plum benefit is its powerful antioxidant properties. Plums contain vitamin C and phytonutrients such as lutein, cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acid. High-antioxidant foods help prevent certain types of cell damage, especially those caused by oxidation.
When certain types of oxygen molecules are allowed to travel freely in the body, they cause what is known as oxidative damage — or the formation of free radicals. Free radicals are very dangerous to the body’s tissues and have been connected to serious health conditions like cancer and premature aging. The body uses antioxidants to prevent itself from the damage caused by oxygen.
A 2009 study published in the Journal of Medicinal Food suggests that plums are rich in natural antioxidants and protect granulocytes from oxidative stress. The study was designed to test the antiradical activity of seven varieties of plums, and their protective effects against oxidative stress were comparatively evaluated in the white blood cells of mice.
Some other benefits of eating plums and other antioxidant foods are slower aging, healthy glowing skin, reduced cancer risk, detoxification support and longer life span.
2. Aids Digestion
Plums are a good source of dietary fiber and help to regulate the digestive system. Dried plums, or prunes, in particular are more effective in aiding digestive disorders like constipation. The University of Maryland Medical Center recommends that babies who eat solid foods should consume plums and other high-fiber foods twice a day in order to treat constipation. This is because plums have both soluble and insoluble fiber.
Soluble fiber, which is found in the pulp of a plum, dissolves into a gluey mass. This mass traps fats and sugars, bacteria and toxins, and helps move them out of the body. It breaks down carbohydrates, lowers bad cholesterol levels and improves cardiovascular health.
Insoluble fiber, found in the skin of a plum, doesn’t dissolve. Its stiff components scrub the digestive tract lining — removing mucoid plaque, trapped toxins and other material. Thus, plum benefits include being one of the best natural constipation remedies, promoting bowel regulation and steady blood sugar.
3. Lowers Cholesterol
Dried plums also lower cholesterol levels naturally. The presence of soluble fiber in prunes can help lower LDL cholesterol by interfering with the absorption of dietary cholesterol.
Prunes lower cholesterol by binding to bile acids and removing them from the body. These bile acids are compounds that are used to digest fat and are made by the liver from cholesterol. When they’re removed from the body, through stool, the liver must create new bile acids — this uses up more cholesterol, resulting in the lowering of cholesterol in circulation.
4. Improves Cardiovascular Health
The flavonoids and phenolic components — such as anthocyanins, chlorogenic acids, quercetin and catechins — present in plums have anti-inflammatory effects on the different bodily cells. Anti-inflammatory foods help prevent health conditions such as high cholesterol, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
The vitamin K present in plums is also beneficial to the heart, so consider addressing the all-too-common vitamin K deficiency right away. This vitamin has been shown to help prevent calcification of arteries, one of the leading causes of heart attacks. It works by carrying calcium out of the arteries and not allowing it to form into hard, dangerous plaque deposits. It helps prevent hardening of the arteries because it can keep calcium out of your artery linings and other body tissues, where it can cause damage.
Some studies show that vitamin K is a critical nutrient for reducing inflammation and protecting cells that line blood vessels, including both veins and arteries. Consuming proper levels of vitamin K is important for preventing high blood pressure and decreasing the chances of cardiac arrest. A promising 2014 study published in the Journal of Nutrition found that dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular, cancer or all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk.
5. Supports Cognitive Health
The phytonutrients present in plums serve as one of the major plum benefits because they help to reduce inflammation in neurological areas, and they improve the ability to learn and retain information. This means that plums help in preventing age-related neurodegenerative disorders, serving as natural treatments for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.
A 2015 study published in The British Journal of Nutrition states that “aging accompanied by a decline in cognitive performance may be a result of the long-term effects of oxidative stress on neurologic processes.” The study was designed to observe the effects of polyphenol-rich Oriental plums on cognitive function and the disposition of protein expression in the brain of mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for five months.
The results showed that cholesterol concentrations in both the blood and the brain were significantly higher in the group eating a high-cholesterol diet when compared to the control and high-cholesterol with Oriental plums groups. Researchers conclude that incorporating Oriental plums into a high-cholesterol diet can improve some of the symptoms of neurodegenerative conditions (or neurons in the brain).
6. Aids Skin Health
The vitamin C content in plums serves as a benefit to the skin and blood vessels. A 2007 study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition evaluated over 4,000 women ages 40–74 and found that higher vitamin C intakes lowered the likelihood of a wrinkled appearance, dryness of the skin and helped to naturally slow aging.
Vitamin C is used to form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It helps heal wounds, and it forms scar tissue. There is even some evidence that using vitamin C skin cream can decrease the amount and duration of skin redness following cosmetic skin procedures, such as wrinkle or scar removal.
7. Boosts Immune System
The vitamin C content in plums is beneficial to individuals whose immune system has been weakened due to stress. Considering that stress has become a common condition in our society, a sufficient intake of vitamin C foods can serve as an ideal tool for one’s overall health.
A 2006 study published in the Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism states that “vitamin C contributes to maintaining the redox integrity of cells and thereby protects them against reactive oxygen species generated during the respiratory burst and in the inflammatory response.” The results of the study, testing the effects of vitamin C and zinc on clinical conditions, found that adequate intakes of vitamin C and zinc improve symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections, including preventing the common cold; furthermore, vitamin C and zinc reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of pneumonia, malaria and diarrhea infections, especially in children in developing countries.
Diabetes is an illness that causes elevated blood sugar levels. If the pancreas does not produce proper amounts of insulin, or if our cells cannot properly process insulin, it results in diabetes. Because the glucose is not properly utilized, it accumulates in the bloodstream, resulting in the common indicator of diabetes — high blood glucose or sugar.
Plums have a low glycemic index, and plum extracts aid in the reduction of blood glucose and triglyceride levels in the body. The presence of flavonoids is another plum benefit because they protect the body against insulin resistance. It’s also the presence of soluble fiber in plums that helps normalize blood sugar levels and serves as a natural remedy for diabetes. Soluble fiber helps the stomach to empty at a slower rate, which affects blood sugar levels and has a beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity. This helps to control diabetes.
9. Boosts Bone Health
The polyphenols and potassium in plums are beneficial to the bones because they enhance bone density and prevent bone loss. This can be extremely helpful for people with osteoporosis. The potassium found in plums is needed to help protect bones from becoming weak and prone to breaks or fractures. When people have low potassium levels, their bones are not properly buffered from the effects of sulfer acids, and they can become demineralized, weak and porous. This is what increases the risk for osteoporosis and fractures.
Osteoporosis is when small holes or weakened areas are formed in the bone that can lead to fractures, pain and even a Dowager’s hump. It’s generally seen in older women over the age of 50. The main causes of osteoporosis include aging, emotional stress, nutritional deficiencies and hormonal imbalances. Plums, and other high-potassium foods, serve as a natural treatment for osteoporosis because they help to strengthen bones and improve bone formation.
How to Buy & Use Plums
When shopping for plums, looks for ones that are slightly firm and will yield somewhat to pressure. Don’t go for the plums that are already soft or bruised. If the plum has a sweet aroma, it’s ready to eat. Plums should be stored in the refrigerator, unless the plum is too firm and you want it to ripen quickly — then keep it at room temperature in a dark place, like a paper bag.
There are so many fun and healthy ways to incorporate plums into your diet. Plums make a great addition to so many baked goods, snacks and salads — try adding this delicious fruit to:
- ice pops
Dried plums are super beneficial too, and like fresh plums, they can be added to a number of healthy dishes. They are soft, sweet and deeply flavored. Sometimes people mix prunes and port wine or brandy to intensify the flavor. Use dried plums, or prunes, in:
- ice cream
- chicken dishes
- pork dishes
- pancetta dishes
- dinner tarts
Recipes with Plums
Plums are great with breakfast — they’re soft, sweet and easy to digest. Adding them to your morning yogurt or oatmeal is a great way to take advantage of these amazing plum benefits. Try adding sliced plums to my Almond Flour Pancakes Recipe. They would also be delicious in my gluten-free Quinoa Porridge Recipe.
Add a small plum to your fruit smoothies, like this Berry Smoothie Recipe.
Believe it or not, plums are delicious with lunch and dinner recipes too — like my Fall Chicken Salad Recipe. Sliced plums would add a great sweetness to this salad, or you can try dried plums for a richer flavor.
Check out No. 5 on my list of 25 Fantastic Fig Recipes. Sautéed plums are an excellent addition to the Vanilla Chia Pudding with Figs.
- 1 cup berries (your choice)
- 1⁄4 cup coconut milk
- 3 tablespoons fresh lime juice
- Place berries in a bowl and pour coconut milk and lime juice over. Mix and freeze until hardened.
Possible Plum Side Effects
Plums contain oxalates, which may cause kidney stones. For this reason, people with the history of kidney stones should avoid consuming plums.
It’s also believed that in some people these oxalates decrease calcium absorption, which results in calcium levels rising in the kidneys. Ultimately, this may cause formation of small or even large stones in the kidneys and the bladder. People with kidney stones may be able to eat a small amount of plums, so take it slow and pay close attention to the results of plum consumption.
From the sound of it, you might think leaky gut only affects the digestive system, but in reality it can affect more. Because Leaky Gut is so common, and such an enigma, I’m offering a free webinar on all things leaky gut. Click here to learn more about the webinar.